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Economics and International Economics BSc UCAS code A level offer A*AA (A*ABB for those taking four full A levels and completing them in the same year) Required subjects IB score Overview Following a similar structure to BSc Economics, this course is particularly suitable if you are interested in studying international trade and international aspects of financial economics.Read full overview It will provide you with core training in economics, combined with a special focus on a range of aspects of international economics, including international trade and monetary economics, in which the school has a worldwide reputation.
Modules in international economics form a significant element of this course, but there is also ample opportunity to take modules offered by other schools in the University How to order a presentation international trade plagiarism-free Business Chicago British Sophomore.Modules in international economics form a significant element of this course, but there is also ample opportunity to take modules offered by other schools in the University.
As with the BSc Economics degree, there are two quantitative pathways through the degree: econometric theory or quantitative economics (applied econometrics).As a graduate, you will have a thorough knowledge of economic theory and how it is applied to the real world, particularly in relation to international trade, monetary economics and globalisation 31 Jan 2018 - The American Economic Association maintains a long and growing list of online resources that will be useful to everyone in the economics profession. Whether you're looking for lesson plan ideas, advice on grad school applications, upcoming conferences in your field, or data for a research project, you .As a graduate, you will have a thorough knowledge of economic theory and how it is applied to the real world, particularly in relation to international trade, monetary economics and globalisation.You will also be familiar with the key analytical techniques that economists use in practice.Year one In your first year, you will study the core of BSc Economics with additional modules in the economics of integration, focusing on the key principles and the largest customs union in the world: the European Union.
If you have A level maths, you may choose either econometrics or quantitative economics and will take a year-long study skills module to ensure that your transition to university study is smooth.Year two This year will help develop your knowledge of the theoretical framework for international trade and money, including topics such as globalisation, off‑shoring, monetary policy and the business cycle.There is a choice of quantitative pathways and those who wish to emphasise the international dimension of their degree can apply to spend a semester of their second year studying abroad, taking similar modules to your counterparts back in Nottingham or expanding your knowledge through other options.Year three Modules in international economics typically occupy half of your final year.
Pitched at an advanced level, they cover a range of theoretical and applied topics in monetary economics, international trade and macroeconomics.
Under the guidance of your academic tutor, you will also undertake a year-long dissertation on a topic of your choice.Optional modules reflect the research specialisms of academic staff and make up around one-third of the final year.You can choose from those offered by the School of Economics or elsewhere in the University.Key facts Entry requirements A levels: A*AA excluding general studies, leisure studies, and global perspectives and research (A*ABB for those taking four full A levels and completing them in the same year) GCSEs: GCSE maths, 7 (A) or above, unless taking it at A level IELTS: 7.0 in speaking and listening) For details of other English language tests and qualifications we accept, please see our entry requirements page.If you require additional support to take your language skills to the required level, you may be able to attend a presessional course at the Centre for English Language Education, which is accredited by the British Council for the teaching of English in the UK.Students who successfully complete the presessional course to the required level can progress onto their chosen degree course without retaking IELTS or equivalent.International applicants For country-specific information including entry requirements, contact details and representatives, see our website.
If you need a visa to study, the University can provide all the information and advice you need.Alternative entry requirements for those with international fees status are as follows: International Baccalaureate: 36 including bonus points ISC/CBSE: 90% in year 12 Applicants taking Mature students At the University of Nottingham we have a valuable community of mature students and we appreciate their contribution to the wider student population.You can find lots of useful information in our guide for mature students.Alternative qualifications Our admission process recognises that applicants have a wealth of different experiences and may have followed various educational pathways.
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Please view the alternative qualifications page for details.
Please note, we do not accept extended project qualifications.Flexible admissions policy In recognition of our applicants’ varied experience and educational pathways, the University of Nottingham employs a flexible admissions policy Help me with a custom presentation international trade Standard College Sophomore Writing from scratch 115 pages / 31625 words.Flexible admissions policy In recognition of our applicants’ varied experience and educational pathways, the University of Nottingham employs a flexible admissions policy.
We may make some applicants an offer lower than advertised, depending on their personal and educational circumstances.Please see the University’s admissions policies and procedures for more information Trade shows and showrooms Whether they have a catwalk show or not, all designers have a static display of their collection. This presentation may be at a stand, at an exhibition, or in a private showroom. Here, the clothes can be viewed in detail by the press and by buyers who will hopefully then write orders..Please see the University’s admissions policies and procedures for more information.Notes for applicants We are looking for students who have the ability and motivation to benefit from our courses, and who will make a valued contribution to the department and the University.
Candidates for full-time admission are considered on the basis of their UCAS application.When considering your application, we will look for evidence that you will be able to fulfil the objectives of the programme of study and achieve the standards required.We will take into account a range of factors additional to, and in some cases instead of, formal examination results.Selection of those applicants to whom we will make an offer will be based upon a combination of the candidate's academic record and an assessment of all the information provided in their UCAS application, their academic reference and their personal statement.Modules The following is a sample of the typical modules that we offer as at the date of publication but is not intended to be construed and/or relied upon as a definitive list of the modules that will be available in any given year.
Due to the passage of time between commencement of the course and subsequent years of the course, modules may change due to developments in the curriculum and the module information in this prospectus is provided for indicative purposes only.Typical year one modules Economic Integration I This module introduces you to the economics of integration.The module analyses the consequences for countries seeking closer economic integration through successively more ambitious forms.This begins with a limited trade arrangement, followed by a common market, which also allows free movement of capital and migrant workers, and a Single Market.The final part of the module examines monetary integration, beginning with exchange rate stabilisation and then considering Monetary Union.
The module aims to combine principles of economic analysis with an assessment of the impact of such measures on the member economies.Economic Integration II This module introduces you to the economics of integration.It analyses the economic rationale for, and practice of, policy co-ordination and harmonisation both at the European and at a global level.An examination of the economic rationale for common EU policies is followed by an analysis of such examples as the common agricultural, trade and regional policies, and the operation of the European Budget.At the global level cooperation in trade, finance and development policies is reviewed in relation to the operation of institutions such as the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
The module aims to combine principles of economic analysis with an assessment of the impact of international policy coordination.Introduction to Macroeconomics This is a single semester introductory module in macroeconomics.Macroeconomics is the study of the aggregate economy, focusing on the cyclical pattern of aggregate output and co-movement of real and monetary aggregates in general equilibrium.
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This module introduces a series of basic models used in modern macroeconomics, with a particular focus on dynamic general equilibrium modelling tools and techniques necessary to build theoretical models.Introduction to Microeconomics This module is an introduction to microeconomics, including behaviour of firms and households in situations of competitive and imperfectly competitive markets.
Writing Economics This module aims to introduce you to the essential skills required for writing as an economist 27 Dec 2016 - Whining PhD students are nothing new, but there seem to be genuine problems with the system that produces research doctorates (the practical “professional doctorates” in fields such as law, business and medicine have a more obvious value). There is an oversupply of PhDs. Although a doctorate is .Writing Economics This module aims to introduce you to the essential skills required for writing as an economist.
It will be delivered in conjunction with Libraries, Research and Learning Resources (LRLR), who will cover content on key information skills relating to the library and learning resources.It will give an introduction to the language of economics and basic research skills and how to write essays and exams.Among the topics covered will be: academic integrity and plagiarism revision and examinations Careers and Employability for Economists This module aims to provide a means for enabling students to reflect on their personal development and the implications this might have for their future career paths.It will include: guidance on recording and evaluating skills guidance on careers from the Careers and Employability Service information, guidance and advice form a range of graduate employers and alumniMathematical Economics and Econometrics The first half of the module provides an introduction to the mathematical methods required for economic modelling, focusing on linear algebra, optimization and their role in formulating and solving economic problems.
The second half introduces the statistical methods required for data analysis in economics.We concentrate on statistical distribution theory and statistical inference before applying these concepts to the study of the linear regression model, whose extensions will be analysed in detail in subsequent econometrics modules.Mathematical Economics and Statistical Methods The first half of the module provides an introduction to the mathematical methods required for economic modelling, focusing on linear algebra, optimisation and their role in formulating and solving economic problems.The second half introduces the statistical methods and concepts most applicable in economics.
The analysis of economic data necessarily proceeds in an environment where there is uncertainty about the processes that generated the data.
Statistical methods provide a framework for understanding and characterising this uncertainty.These concepts are most conveniently introduced through the analysis of single-variable problems.However, economists are most often concerned about relationships among variables.The module builds towards the study of regression analysis, which is often applied by economists in studying such relationships.Quantitative Economics The first half of the module provides an introduction to the mathematical methods required for economic modelling, focusing on mathematical finance integration The second half introduces the statistical methods and concepts most applicable in economics.
The analysis of economic data necessarily proceeds in an environment where there is uncertainty about the processes that generated the data.Statistical methods provide a framework for understanding and characterising this uncertainty.These concepts are most conveniently introduced through the analysis of single-variable problems.However, economists are most often concerned about relationships among variables.The module builds towards the study of regression analysis, which is often applied by economists in studying such relationships.
Economic Perspectives This module is intended as a foundation for the understanding of modern economic theories and policies.It is concerned with the: different characters and workings of economies of the past changing ways in which economic questions have been interpreted and answered over time As will be discovered, the 21st century Western views of everyday economic concepts such as ownership, money, exchange, work, poverty, industrialisation, economic growth and government are quite different from those expressed at other times and in other places.
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Growth and Development in Long-Run Historical Perspective In this module we will explore the long-run, historical determinants of the wealth of nations.We will begin by taking a long-run view on modern economic growth, showing how this has led to dramatic changes in the relative wealth of nations over the last 500 years.We will then ask two key questions: why have modern economic growth started in some places rather than others? And while have some countries been able to catch up, while others have not? These investigations will improve our understanding of why are some countries much richer than others, and will give us some important insights on how to promote sustained growth in developing countries 8 Nov 2014 - Contributions from academics and practitioners will be serialised on Global Policy until the e-book's release in the second quarter of 2015. Find out There are few questions in economics that have been as vividly discussed as the relationship between trade policy and economic development. Economic .
We will then ask two key questions: why have modern economic growth started in some places rather than others? And while have some countries been able to catch up, while others have not? These investigations will improve our understanding of why are some countries much richer than others, and will give us some important insights on how to promote sustained growth in developing countries.
The module draws on a vibrant new literature in economics that looks at comparative development as the outcome of a long historical process, and uses techniques originally developed in economics to improve our understanding of history.Without going into the technical details, the module reviews the main findings of this literature, discusses their implications for modern development experiences, and lays out the main challenges for future research the heckscher ohlin model in theory and practice Princeton University.Without going into the technical details, the module reviews the main findings of this literature, discusses their implications for modern development experiences, and lays out the main challenges for future research.By providing an historical perspective on growth and development, the module will endow you with a better understanding ofcontemporary economic issues.It will also give you some exciting examples of how the economic techniques you will learn in later modules can be used to understand the world better.Current Economic Issues This module focuses on a range of current issues facing the world economy, seeks to illustrate how economists model such issues, and examines potential policy responses.
Example topics to be covered are: globalisation Study abroad On this course, you can apply to spend a semester studying abroad at the University's campuses in China or Malaysia, or at one of our partner institutions in locations such as Australia, Canada and Japan.You will get the opportunity to broaden your horizons and enhance your employability by experiencing another culture.You can choose to study similar modules to your counterparts back in Nottingham or expand your knowledge by taking other options.Teaching is typically in English; however, there may be opportunities to study in another language if you are sufficiently fluent.Careers The growth of economic awareness has increased the demand for economics graduates and a degree from Nottingham can give you a head start in your career.
You will acquire a strong academic foundation and a range of excellent economist-specific and transferable skills, such as the ability to study independently and communicate effectively, verbally and in writing.You will also have the capacity to grasp complicated economic concepts, whether they are mathematical or philosophical in nature.Our graduates opt for a wide variety of careers, including investment banking, accountancy, tax consultancy, working in government offices, auditing, derivatives trading, management consultancy, mergers and acquisitions, and many more.Average starting salary and career progression 93.3% of undergraduates from the School of Economics had secured work or further study within six months of graduation.
The average starting salary was £29,568 with the highest being £55,000.* The School of Economics ranked 2nd in the UK for boosting graduate salaries, with graduates earning an average of £8,810 more than expected five years after graduation.** * Known destinations of full-time home undergraduates who were available for work 2015/16.Salaries are calculated based on the median of those in full-time paid employment within the UK.** Careers support and advice Studying for a degree at the University of Nottingham will provide you with the type of skills and experiences that will prove invaluable in any career, whichever direction you decide to take.
Throughout your time with us, our Careers and Employability Service can work with you to improve your employability skills even further; assisting with job or course applications, searching for appropriate work experience placements and hosting events to bring you closer to a wide range of prospective employers.
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Have a look at our careers page for an overview of all the employability support and opportunities that we provide to current students.Scholarships and bursaries The University of Nottingham offers a wide range of bursaries and scholarships.These funds can provide you with an additional source of non-repayable financial help It is surprising that only such a small number of companies turn to professional help with this text type, as wrong formulations in contracts can have serious legal Due to these high percentages, a premium should be put on making telephone calls and writing business letters in English language training as well. The staff .These funds can provide you with an additional source of non-repayable financial help.
For up to date information regarding tuition fees, visit our fees and finance pages.
Home students* Over one third of our UK students receive our means-tested core bursary, worth up to £2,000 a year.Full details can be found on our financial support pages.* A 'home' student is one who meets certain UK residence criteria need to buy an accounting paper Standard US Letter Size one hour.* A 'home' student is one who meets certain UK residence criteria.These are the same criteria as apply to eligibility for home funding from Student Finance.International/EU students Our International Baccalaureate Diploma Excellence Scholarship is available for select students paying overseas fees who achieve 38 points or above in the International Baccalaureate Diploma.
We also offer a range of High Achiever Prizes for students from selected countries, schools and colleges to help with the cost of tuition fees.Find out more about scholarships, fees and finance for international students.The American Economic Association maintains a long and growing list of online resources that will be useful to everyone in the economics profession.Whether you're looking for lesson plan ideas, advice on grad school applications, upcoming conferences in your field, or data for a research project, you can find it here.
Great new resources are appearing every day! Other Helpful Skills Polish some of the research skills that will be necessary for research, writing, and presentation across multiple academic disciplines.
Welcome This guide is intended to direct you to fundamental resources to use when performing research in the area of economics.The resources here are by no means comprehensive, but are intended to help you achieve a sound start to your work.The tabs above will lead you to specific kinds of resources.Use my contact info on the right to get in touch for more help.Please feel free to contact me if you have suggestions for additions or other ways to improve this guide.
Online Reference Collections of The Economist.On the evening before All Saints’ Day in 1517, Martin Luther nailed 95 theses to the door of a church in Wittenberg.In those days a thesis was simply a position one wanted to argue.Luther, an Augustinian friar, asserted that Christians could not buy their way to heaven.Today a doctoral thesis is both an idea and an account of a period of original research.
Why doing a phd is often a waste of time the economist
Writing one is the aim of the hundreds of thousands of students who embark on a doctorate of philosophy (PhD) every year.In most countries a PhD is a basic requirement for a career in academia.It is an introduction to the world of independent research — a kind of intellectual masterpiece, created by an apprentice in close collaboration with a supervisor I have excluded a discussion of the interestrate option from the scope of this presentation. A. Market. Analysis. of. Options. Trading in futures emerged in the early 1970s and in options in the early 1980s, each in response to the growth of international trade and the increased volatility in financial markets. Futures and options .It is an introduction to the world of independent research — a kind of intellectual masterpiece, created by an apprentice in close collaboration with a supervisor.
The requirements to complete one vary enormously between countries, universities and even subjects.Some students will first have to spend two years working on a master’s degree or diploma.
Some will receive a stipend; others will pay their own way .Some will receive a stipend; others will pay their own way.Some PhDs involve only research, some require classes and examinations and some require the student to teach undergraduates.A thesis can be dozens of pages in mathematics, or many hundreds in history.As a result, newly minted PhDs can be as young as their early 20s or world-weary forty-somethings.One thing many PhD students have in common is dissatisfaction.
Some describe their work as “slave labour”.Seven-day weeks, ten-hour days, low pay and uncertain prospects are widespread.You know you are a graduate student, goes one quip, when your office is better decorated than your home and you have a favourite flavour of instant noodle.“It isn’t graduate school itself that is discouraging,” says one student, who confesses to rather enjoying the hunt for free pizza.“What’s discouraging is realising the end point has been yanked out of reach.
” Whining PhD students are nothing new, but there seem to be genuine problems with the system that produces research doctorates (the practical “professional doctorates” in fields such as law, business and medicine have a more obvious value).Although a doctorate is designed as training for a job in academia, the number of PhD positions is unrelated to the number of job openings.Meanwhile, business leaders complain about shortages of high-level skills, suggesting PhDs are not teaching the right things.The fiercest critics compare research doctorates to Ponzi or pyramid schemes.
Rich pickings For most of history even a first degree at a university was the privilege of a rich few, and many academic staff did not hold doctorates.But as higher education expanded after the second world war, so did the expectation that lecturers would hold advanced degrees.American universities geared up first: by 1970 America was producing just under a third of the world’s university students and half of its science and technology PhDs (at that time it had only 6% of the global population).Since then America’s annual output of PhDs has doubled, to 64,000.Between 1998 and 2006 the number of doctorates handed out in all OECD countries grew by 40%, compared with 22% for America.
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PhD production sped up most dramatically in Mexico, Portugal, Italy and Slovakia.Even Japan, where the number of young people is shrinking, churned out about 46% more PhDs.Part of that growth reflects the expansion of university education outside America This course is particularly well-suited to students who wish to study international trade and international aspects of financial economics. Modules in A*AA (A*ABB for those taking four full A levels and completing them in the same year). Required subjects. GCSE maths, 7 (A) or above, unless taking it at A level. IB score. 38..Part of that growth reflects the expansion of university education outside America.
Richard Freeman, a labour economist at Harvard University, says that by 2006 America was enrolling just 12% of the world’s students.
But universities have discovered that PhD students are cheap, highly motivated and disposable labour Best website to purchase a presentation international trade cheap Premium Bluebook Rewriting University.But universities have discovered that PhD students are cheap, highly motivated and disposable labour.With more PhD students they can do more research, and in some countries more teaching, with less money Best website to purchase a presentation international trade cheap Premium Bluebook Rewriting University.With more PhD students they can do more research, and in some countries more teaching, with less money.A graduate assistant at Yale might earn $20,000 a year for nine months of teaching.The average pay of full professors in America was $109,000 in 2009 — higher than the average for judges and magistrates potioncollective.com/coursework/how-to-purchase-a-custom-biotechnology-coursework-harvard-custom-writing-us-letter-size-originality.The average pay of full professors in America was $109,000 in 2009 — higher than the average for judges and magistrates.Indeed, the production of PhDs has far outstripped demand for university lecturers.
In a recent book, Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus, an academic and a journalist, report that America produced more than 100,000 doctoral degrees between 2005 and 2009.In the same period there were just 16,000 new professorships.Using PhD students to do much of the undergraduate teaching cuts the number of full-time jobs.Even in Canada, where the output of PhD graduates has grown relatively modestly, universities conferred 4,800 doctorate degrees in 2007 but hired just 2,616 new full-time professors.
Only a few fast-developing countries, such as Brazil and China, now seem short of PhDs.
A short course in supply and demand In research the story is similar.PhD students and contract staff known as “postdocs”, described by one student as “the ugly underbelly of academia”, do much of the research these days.Dr Freeman concluded from pre-2000 data that if American faculty jobs in the life sciences were increasing at 5% a year, just 20% of students would land one.In Canada 80% of postdocs earn $38,600 or less per year before tax — the average salary of a construction worker.
The rise of the postdoc has created another obstacle on the way to an academic post.In some areas five years as a postdoc is now a prerequisite for landing a secure full-time job.These armies of low-paid PhD researchers and postdocs boost universities’, and therefore countries’, research capacity.Brilliant, well-trained minds can go to waste when fashions change.
The post-Sputnik era drove the rapid growth in PhD physicists that came to an abrupt halt as the Vietnam war drained the science budget.Brian Schwartz, a professor of physics at the City University of New York, says that in the 1970s as many as 5,000 physicists had to find jobs in other areas.
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In America the rise of PhD teachers’ unions reflects the breakdown of an implicit contract between universities and PhD students: crummy pay now for a good academic job later.Student teachers in public universities such as the University of Wisconsin-Madison formed unions as early as the 1960s, but the pace of unionisation has increased recently.Unions are now spreading to private universities; though Yale and Cornell, where university administrators and some faculty argue that PhD students who teach are not workers but apprentices, have resisted union drives and. International Trade. PAUL KLEMPERER. Oxford University. First version received October 1991 ;final version accepted May 1995 (Eds.) We survey recent work on competition in markets in which consumers have costs of switching between competing firms' products. In a market with switching costs (or brand loyalty ), .
Unions are now spreading to private universities; though Yale and Cornell, where university administrators and some faculty argue that PhD students who teach are not workers but apprentices, have resisted union drives.
In 2002 New York University was the first private university to recognise a PhD teachers’ union, but stopped negotiating with it three years later.In some countries, such as Britain and America, poor pay and job prospects are reflected in the number of foreign-born PhD students.Dr Freeman estimates that in 1966 only 23% of science and engineering PhDs in America were awarded to students born outside the country Getting Started Economics 343 International Trade duPont Library nbsp.Dr Freeman estimates that in 1966 only 23% of science and engineering PhDs in America were awarded to students born outside the country.By 2006 that proportion had increased to 48%.Foreign students tend to tolerate poorer working conditions, and the supply of cheap, brilliant, foreign labour also keeps wages down.
A PhD may offer no financial benefit over a master’s degree.It can even reduce earnings Proponents of the PhD argue that it is worthwhile even if it does not lead to permanent academic employment.Not every student embarks on a PhD wanting a university career and many move successfully into private-sector jobs in, for instance, industrial research.That is true; but drop-out rates suggest that many students become dispirited.In America only 57% of doctoral students will have a PhD ten years after their first date of enrolment.
In the humanities, where most students pay for their own PhDs, the figure is 49%.Worse still, whereas in other subject areas students tend to jump ship in the early years, in the humanities they cling like limpets before eventually falling off.And these students started out as the academic cream of the nation.Research at one American university found that those who finish are no cleverer than those who do not.Poor supervision, bad job prospects or lack of money cause them to run out of steam.
Even graduates who find work outside universities may not fare all that well.PhD courses are so specialised that university careers offices struggle to assist graduates looking for jobs, and supervisors tend to have little interest in students who are leaving academia.One OECD study shows that five years after receiving their degrees, more than 60% of PhDs in Slovakia and more than 45% in Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany and Spain were still on temporary contracts.About one-third of Austria’s PhD graduates take jobs unrelated to their degrees.
In Germany 13% of all PhD graduates end up in lowly occupations.In the Netherlands the proportion is 21%.
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A very slim premium PhD graduates do at least earn more than those with a bachelor’s degree.A study in the Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management by Bernard Casey shows that British men with a bachelor’s degree earn 14% more than those who could have gone to university but chose not to.But the premium for a master’s degree, which can be accomplished in as little as one year, is almost as high, at 23% Help me write a presentation international trade double spaced Sophomore CBE A4 (British/European).But the premium for a master’s degree, which can be accomplished in as little as one year, is almost as high, at 23%.
In some subjects the premium for a PhD vanishes entirely.PhDs in maths and computing, social sciences and languages earn no more than those with master’s degrees Be Persuasive Write a Convincing Position Paper or Policy Advice nbsp.PhDs in maths and computing, social sciences and languages earn no more than those with master’s degrees.The premium for a PhD is actually smaller than for a master’s degree in engineering and technology, architecture and education Be Persuasive Write a Convincing Position Paper or Policy Advice nbsp.The premium for a PhD is actually smaller than for a master’s degree in engineering and technology, architecture and education.Only in medicine, other sciences, and business and financial studies is it high enough to be worthwhile.
Over all subjects, a PhD commands only a 3% premium over a master’s degree.Dr Schwartz, the New York physicist, says the skills learned in the course of a PhD can be readily acquired through much shorter courses.Thirty years ago, he says, Wall Street firms realised that some physicists could work out differential equations and recruited them to become “quants”, analysts and traders.Today several short courses offer the advanced maths useful for finance.
“A PhD physicist with one course on differential equations is not competitive,” says Dr Schwartz.
Many students say they are pursuing their subject out of love, and that education is an end in itself.Some give little thought to where the qualification might lead.In one study of British PhD graduates, about a third admitted that they were doing their doctorate partly to go on being a student, or put off job hunting.Nearly half of engineering students admitted to this.Scientists can easily get stipends, and therefore drift into doing a PhD.
But there are penalties, as well as benefits, to staying at university.Workers with “surplus schooling” — more education than a job requires — are likely to be less satisfied, less productive and more likely to say they are going to leave their jobs.Academics tend to regard asking whether a PhD is worthwhile as analogous to wondering whether there is too much art or culture in the world.They believe that knowledge spills from universities into society, making it more productive and healthier.That may well be true; but doing a PhD may still be a bad choice for an individual.
The interests of academics and universities on the one hand and PhD students on the other are not well aligned.The more bright students stay at universities, the better it is for academics.
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Postgraduate students bring in grants and beef up their supervisors’ publication records.Academics pick bright undergraduate students and groom them as potential graduate students.It isn’t in their interests to turn the smart kids away, at least at the beginning The Fundamentals of Fashion Design Page 179 Google Books Result.
It isn’t in their interests to turn the smart kids away, at least at the beginning.
One female student spoke of being told of glowing opportunities at the outset, but after seven years of hard slog she was fobbed off with a joke about finding a rich husband.Monica Harris, a professor of psychology at the University of Kentucky, is a rare exception.She believes that too many PhDs are being produced, and has stopped admitting them.But such unilateral academic birth control is rare.One Ivy-League president, asked recently about PhD oversupply, said that if the top universities cut back others will step in to offer them instead how to purchase a political theory coursework 58 pages / 15950 words Academic 2 days.
One Ivy-League president, asked recently about PhD oversupply, said that if the top universities cut back others will step in to offer them instead.
Noble pursuits Many of the drawbacks of doing a PhD are well known.Your correspondent was aware of them over a decade ago while she slogged through a largely pointless PhD in theoretical ecology.As Europeans try to harmonise higher education, some institutions are pushing the more structured learning that comes with an American PhD.The organisations that pay for research have realised that many PhDs find it tough to transfer their skills into the job market.Writing lab reports, giving academic presentations and conducting six-month literature reviews can be surprisingly unhelpful in a world where technical knowledge has to be assimilated quickly and presented simply to a wide audience.
Some universities are now offering their PhD students training in soft skills such as communication and teamwork that may be useful in the labour market.In Britain a four-year NewRoutePhD claims to develop just such skills in graduates.The interests of universities and tenured academics are misaligned with those of PhD students Measurements and incentives might be changed, too.Some university departments and academics regard numbers of PhD graduates as an indicator of success and compete to produce more.For the students, a measure of how quickly those students get a permanent job, and what they earn, would be more useful.
Where penalties are levied on academics who allow PhDs to overrun, the number of students who complete rises abruptly, suggesting that students were previously allowed to fester.Many of those who embark on a PhD are the smartest in their class and will have been the best at everything they have done.They will have amassed awards and prizes.As this year’s new crop of graduate students bounce into their research, few will be willing to accept that the system they are entering could be designed for the benefit of others, that even hard work and brilliance may well not be enough to succeed, and that they would be better off doing something else.They might use their research skills to look harder at the lot of the disposable academic.
Someone should write a thesis about that.